COURSES - PioneeringHub Scholars Colloquium

COURSES

Breakdown of Courses and requirements for students at colleges and universities.

Europe’s Top 10 Best and Most Affordable Economics Universities

//

Are you looking for an economics universities in Europe? Do you want to expand your horizons in the European world? Are you confident that you are qualified to study in Europe? If that’s the case, these are Europe’s top ten economics universities. The QS World University Rankings were used to compile the list.

Economics Universities
Europe's Top 10 Best and Most Affordable Economics Universities 4

Ranking Top 10 Economics Universities in Europe

 

1. The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) is a university in London, England (United Kingdom)
LSE is a world-class center for the teaching and research of social sciences, including economics, politics, law, sociology, anthropology, accounting, and finance. It was founded in 1895 and is located in central London. The University is known around the world for its excellence in economics education. The university has the largest proportion of world-leading research of any university in the United Kingdom.

There have been 16 Nobel Prize winners in the fields of economics, literature, and peace, all of them were either LSE staff or alumni. LSE Economics focuses on microeconomics, macroeconomics, and econometrics, all of which are important foundations for studying economics.

2. University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
The University of Cambridge, in the United Kingdom, was founded in 1209 and is the English-speaking world’s second-oldest university. Students can select from a variety of degrees. Each degree has its own set of requirements and methods of instruction. Students with a bachelor’s degree in economics from Cambridge can work in a variety of fields, including finance, management consulting, and public policy.

It’s also a great way to be ready for post-graduate studies. The course covers both theoretical and practical economics. Students studying economics, on the other hand, use concepts and techniques from a wide range of disciplines, including history, sociology, mathematics and statistics. As a result, graduates of this university are incredibly well qualified for a variety of occupations and further education.

3. Oxford University (United Kingdom)
University of Oxford is one of the oldest and best universities in the world for higher education. It is located in one of the most famous cities in the world. Oxford’s Department of Economics is one of Europe’s top research departments, with some of the world’s most illustrious academic economists among its ranks. The fundamental aim of economics at the University of Oxford is to understand how consumers, businesses, and governments make decisions that influence how resources are allocated.

Furthermore, the department is dedicated to excellence in undergraduate teaching in order to provide students with the necessary expertise by the time they graduate. This university may appeal to those interested in pursuing an economics degree in the United Kingdom.

4. University of London (UCL) (United Kingdom)
The University of College London, formerly known as London University, was the first university in London to admit students regardless of religion and to admit women on an equal footing with men. It was founded in 1826 as London University.

The University of College London’s Economics department has a strong international reputation in major areas of economics teaching. In the 2014 REF, it was the only economics department in the UK to obtain an exceptional grade-point average of 3.78 (out of 4) with 79 percent of all output metrics graded at the highest 4* level. Students do not have to be concerned about their religion, sex, political beliefs, or anything else affecting their acceptance to this university.

5. Luigi Bocconi Universita Commerciale (Italy)
Bocconi University, or Universita Commerciale Luigi Bocconi in English, is a private university in Milan, Italy. In the departments of economics, management, finance, law, and public administration, Bocconi offers undergraduate, graduate, and post-graduate study. According to the 2013 Financial Times European Business School Rankings, the university is among the top ten best business schools in Europe.

In the 2018 QS World University Rankings, it is also in the top 25 best institutions in the world in the fields of Economics, Econometrics, Accounting, and Finance. In the 2014 QS ‘Social Sciences and Management’ Faculty Rankings, it was placed 25th in the world. Both English and Italian degrees are available. As a result, the University offers a variety of programs and unique occasions for people to broaden their horizons.

Economics Universities
Europe's Top 10 Best and Most Affordable Economics Universities 5

6. The University of Warwick (United Kingdom)
The Institution of Warwick, based in Coventry, England, is a public research university. It was established in 1965 as part of a government drive to increase higher education accessibility. The University of Warwick’s department of economics was established in 1965, the same year as the university, and has since established itself as one of the best economics departments in the UK and Europe.

This university currently has over 1200 undergraduate students and 330 postgraduate students, with half of them from the United Kingdom or the European Union and the other half from other countries. If you choose to study at this one of the greatest colleges, you could be one of the 50% who come from abroad.

7. University of London Business School (United Kingdom)
The University of London’s London Business School (LBS) is a business school and a constituent college of the University of London. It is located in central London, England. After the Franks Report suggested the construction of two business schools, it was founded in 1964. LBS provides a variety of academic disciplines, including economics.

The economics group at LBS excels at academic research and applying it to commercial and government concerns. Economic theory, industrial economics, strategic corporate conduct, the global macro-economy, and European economic integration are among the topics they teach. I recommend that anyone interested in studying economics in London consider this institution as one of their options.

8. The Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden)
The Stockholm School of Economics is one of Europe’s major business schools, located in Sweden. SSS is a for-profit business school that obtains 78 percent of its funding from individuals and 22 percent from the Swedish government. This university provides bachelor’s, master’s, and MBA programs. SSE has been preparing exceptional women and men for leadership roles in the business and economics community, as well as the public sector, for more than a century.

SSE has a well-deserved reputation for quality in Sweden and around the world. SSE is ranked 26th among universities worldwide in the discipline of economics by QS Worldwide University Rankings. EQUIS (European Quality Improvement System) has granted the School accreditation, indicating that all of its primary operations, including teaching and research, meet the highest international standards.

9. Erasmus University Rotterdam (Netherlands)
Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR) is a well-known public university in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, which also happens to be home to Europe’s largest port. The name of the university was inspired by Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus, a 15th-century humanist and theologian, was the inspiration for the university’s name. Erasmus has a long and illustrious academic career behind him. Erasmus University’s Erasmus School of Economics and Rotterdam School of Management are Europe’s and the world’s top economics and management schools. The Financial Times named Erasmus University Rotterdam as one of Europe’s top ten business schools in 2007.

Times Higher Education ranked Erasmus University Rotterdam as 20th in Europe and 72nd worldwide in 2015, with social sciences ranked 40th and clinical and health sciences ranked 35th. This is the first thing that students considering studying in the Netherlands should think about.

Economics Universities
Europe's Top 10 Best and Most Affordable Economics Universities 6

10. Universitat Pompeu Fabra (Spain)
Pompeu Fabra University is a university located in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. It was founded in 1990. Pompeu Fabra, a Catalan philologist, was the inspiration for this name. It is one of the top seven fastest-growing colleges in the world, according to Times Higher Education.

The Graduate Program in Economics, Finance, and Management is offered by the Department of Economics and Business of the Universitat Pompeu Fabra (GPEFM). Students with an exceptional academic background, as well as the intellectual curiosity and discipline required to flourish in a rigorous environment, are sought after by the Program. The Program’s official language is English, which is unique.

 

 

 

economics universitieseconomics universitieseconomics universitieseconomics universitieseconomics universities economics universitieseconomics universitieseconomics universitieseconomics universitieseconomics universitieseconomics universitieseconomics universitieseconomics universities

Masters in Education Degree Program

/

Types of Masters in Education Degree Programs

masters in education
Masters in Education Degree Program 11

Earning a graduate degree in education is a very popular option in America today; it can open up many exciting career doors in many fields. However, there are many types of master’s in education programs from which you can choose.

Which one that is best for you will depend upon what your specific career goals are and where you want to work. Understanding the different master’s degrees that you can earn will help you to better understand which will advance your career goals.

There are four major types of master’s degree in education, with many specialities under those four basic degrees; we will go into detail here on each of them. We also provide examples of online universities that are available.

  • Master of Education (M. Ed.)
  • Master of Arts (M.A. Ed.)
  • Master of Science in Education (M.S. Ed.)
  • Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT)

Each of these degree options will provide you with a great deal of career value. To make the best decision is to research on this website whether the degree program will meet your career objectives. Also, you need to determine if that graduate degree will meet the criteria for whatever local state or organization criteria for you job.

Some of these programs are geared toward people who already have a teacher’s license. You might, for example, be looking for additional professional development and a higher salary by earning a master’s in education. Or, you may be a new teacher earning a degree to get your state certification.

Below are details on these types of master’s in education degrees.

masters in education
Masters in Education Degree Program 12

Master’s in Education

The most type of degree in this area is the Master’s in Education. A major aspect of this type of master’s is that it is often a good degree choice for people who come from many educational and career backgrounds. The M. Ed. degree is somewhat of an applied degree; you can take many of the skills you learn and practice them in many different fields.

The M.Ed. is often a good choice for people who want a good, well-rounded overview of the education field. Whether you are interested in advancing your career as a high school or middle school educator or becoming a corporate trainer, this type of master’s degree can be very beneficial.

This degree is often the first choice for educators who want to get a salary and rank increase. There are many specialties within the Master’s in Education that can get you additional expertise.

Liberty University offers an excellent online Master of Education. This degree will prepare you for many leadership roles in public or private school systems.

The coursework will provide you with very focused training for people who want to obtain a position as a K-12 educator, or for those who want to earn a doctorate in education later.

There are several core courses in this program, and then several specializations that will offer you the skills you need in administration, teaching/learning or school counseling.

This program has state approved advanced licensure, which means that most other states will recognize this program as qualifying for licensure for that state. It also is accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education or NCATE.

Specific degrees offered at this university are:

  • Master of Education in Teaching and Supervision
  • Master of Education with Math Specialist Endorsement
  • Master of Education with Reading Specialist Endorsement
  • Master of Education – School Counselor

 

Master of Arts in Education

A Master of Arts in Education is often a good choice for those who want a degree that is tailored to specific subjects. It could be the best choice if you want to improve your skills and knowledge in a specific field or subject.

For example, if you have been teaching Spanish for five years, you may want to earn your M.A. Ed so you can get a Spanish education certification that will lead you to advancement or a higher salary.

A good Master of Arts in Education to consider is the online program at Michigan State University. This program has been designed for educators who would like to enhance their skills and knowledge in teaching, learning, and leadership in elementary, middle and high schools, as well as community colleges and universities.

Students can choose to develop one or two specialities that include these:

  • Master of Arts in Education – Special Education
  • Master of Arts in Education – Sport Coaching and Leadership
  • Master of Arts in Education – Technology and Learning
  • Master of Arts in Education – P-12 School and Postsecondary Leadership
  • Master of Arts in Education – Literacy Education
  • Master of Arts in Education – Science and Mathematics

Each degree program requires you to complete ED 800 Educational Inquiry, and you also need to complete ED 870 Capstone and Synthesis. This includes completing and showing an online portfolio. You must complete 80% of the program before you start the capstone.

masters in education
Masters in Education Degree Program 13

Master of Science in Education

A Master of Science in Education often will focus on curriculum methodology and design, instructional design, pedagogy and related subjects. Many universities may offer a very theoretical master’s in science that is heavy on research.

For example, many universities offer a M.S. Ed. for educators who want to become an administrator or principal. The specialization in that case would be administration or educational leadership in administration.

The University of New England offers a Master of Science in Education that is completely online with many focus areas for education professionals who want to further their careers. There are five core classes you take online, and then you can choose five other electives in the specialty you prefer.

The features of all Master of Science in Education programs at UNE:

  • 30 credit hours
  • Complete degree in two years full time
  • No campus visits – 100% online
  • No GRE scores needed
  • Experienced practitioners and instructors
  • Accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges

Core classes are in teaching and leading; differentiation theory and strategies; motivational theory; action research and online portfolio.

Focus areas depending upon your career goals are:

  • Career and Technical Education
  • Curriculum and Instruction
  • Literacy
  • Educational Leadership
  • Inclusion Education – Special Education

Master of Arts in Teaching

The M.A. in Teaching is designed for the student who needs to obtain the expert skills needed for teaching and teaching strategies. This is a frequent option for people that have not gotten their teacher’s certification yet. This degree option can be the perfect choice for people who have a background in another field and are making a switch into teaching.

The MA in Teaching is a hands on degree in many cases, and classroom work is often required under the supervision of a licensed teacher.

Educators with experience in elementary and middle schools may choose to get this master’s degree to learn new skills in applying curriculum and advanced teaching instruction.

If you want to attend a top ranked and prestigious Master in Arts in Education Program, we would recommend the University of Southern California’s Rossier School of Education.

MAT students here will blend education theory with hands on teaching experiences in your local area. This will allow new education students to build strong classroom skills to meet the many challenges of schools that have great needs.

You can choose from five specialties that allow you to earn a special credential that will improve your skills and potentially your salary. You can choose an MA in Teaching with or without a teaching credential. Both programs take up to three years to finish.

  • Elementary Education
  • Secondary English
  • Secondary Mathematics
  • Secondary Science
  • Secondary Social Science
masters in education
Masters in Education Degree Program 14

Dental Hygienist Education Requirements and Job Description

/

Dental Hygienist Education Requirements:

Dental hygienists are comparable to dentists in that they are responsible for the majority of dental care. Their responsibilities range from cleaning plaque, tartar, and buildup to fluoride administration and cavity filling. On the other hand, dental hygienists have different educational requirements than dentists. Unlike dentists, who go to school for eight years or more, most dental hygienists only go to school for one to two years, with some four-year programs.

The majority of dental hygienists have an associate’s degree or certificate, with four-year bachelor’s degrees and six-year master’s degrees being slightly less frequent. This website will give you a quick overview of what it takes to become a dental hygienist.

You may also like: Educational psychologist training and job description

Dental Hygienist High School and Background Education

Though high school education is not as important to a dental hygienist’s professional path as college education, aspiring dental hygienists can benefit from a strong grounding in the correct high school courses.

The following high school courses are crucial in the topic of dental hygiene:

  • Biology
  • Chemistry
  • Health
  • Mathematics

Dental hygienist students can develop a good foundation for their postsecondary education by being well-versed in these subjects.

dental hygienist education

Dental Hygienist Associate’s Degree Level Education

The most common educational level earned by dental hygienists is an associate’s degree. Dental hygiene associate’s degree programs last two years and integrate a career-focused dental hygiene curriculum with fundamental general-education classes in science, arithmetic, and communications. 

An associate’s degree program in dental hygienist education might cover the following topics:

  • Medical Terminology
  • English
  • Chemistry
  • Communications
  • Psychology
  • Preclinical Dental Hygiene
  • Dental Hygiene Practice & Theory
  • Oral Radiology
  • Anatomy of the Head and Neck
  • Dental Pharmacology

These programs are for students who have completed high school and offer a comprehensive education in basic dental hygiene practice and theory.In most cases, a dental hygienist only requires an associate’s degree to obtain general practice licensure.

Dental Hygienist Certificate Level Education

Dental hygienists with a certificate in dental hygiene may also be employed. Certificate programs typically run nine months to a year and are intended to enhance an existing degree, such as a completed associate’s degree in a related field of healthcare. Because these programs are designed to supplement an existing degree, they only include core dental hygiene courses.

Dental hygiene students may study the following certificate-level subjects:

  • Dental Pharmacology
  • Histology
  • Periodontology
  • General and Oral Pathology
  • Oral Microbiology
  • Dental Hygiene Practice & Theory

Dental hygiene certificate programs can help graduates get licensed and work in private dental offices.

Dental Hygienist Advanced Education

Dental hygienists who want to work in sectors other than private practice, such as dental hygiene research or government employment, often need a bachelor’s degree or higher. Advanced dental hygienists are expected to have the greatest levels of training in dental hygiene and, as a result, are expected to study more advanced subjects than basic practice requires or to study the same subjects in greater depth.

Dental hygiene bachelor’s degree programs typically last four years. Beyond a bachelor’s degree, a master’s degree normally takes an extra two years of study.

These programs may cover a variety of themes, including:

  • Dental Hygiene Practicum
  • Dental Hygiene Radiology
  • Clinical Periodontics
  • Anesthesia
  • Public Health Dentistry

In general, the better a dental hygienist’s education, the more employment duties and pay they can expect.

Read also: National new education policy 2022

dental hygienist education

Dental Hygienist Courses

Students in dental hygiene programs take classes to learn the abilities they’ll need to become licensed and practice professional dental hygiene. Some are essential foundation courses with a general education focus, while others are core courses that offer dental hygienists career-oriented instruction. Others are for more advanced research.

Some of the dental hygienist courses that students take while in dental hygiene programs are listed below.

Anatomy of the Head and Neck: The study of the human body and all of its parts is known as anatomy. Anatomy of the head and neck is a study of the head, neck, jaw, and other elements of the head and neck, as well as how they work together.

Anesthesia: For more complex dental operations such as root canals and surgeries, anesthesia is needed. Anesthesics are harmful and can risk a patient’s life if handled improperly, so dental hygienists who use them need special training.

Chemistry: This required course covers the elements that make up the earth’s compounds, as well as their interactions. It lays the groundwork for courses like pharmacology and anesthesia.

Clinical Periodontics: The study of the tooth’s supporting components, such as the gums and underlying bone, is known as periodontology. Clinical periodontics concerns the treatment of gum disease and other disorders affecting the gums.

Communications: This foundation course focuses on the transmission of information across a variety of channels, including written, oral, telephonic, and electronic means. Depending on the dental hygiene curriculum, the concentration of courses in this topic area may differ.

Dental Hygiene Theory & Practice: The notion of dental hygiene is discussed in the theory of dental hygiene, which deals with the career-focused components of the profession in an abstract way. The subject’s practice parts are concerned with actual dental practices and may or may not entail hands-on training in a clinical setting.

Dental Hygiene Practicum: In this graduate-level course, a dental hygiene student practices in a clinical setting under the supervision of a dentist or instructor. It’s employed in several degree programs’ core parts as well as advanced dental hygiene programs.

Dental Hygiene Radiology: Radiology is the study of how to take diagnostic x-rays with radiation in a healthcare context. This is used in dental practice to take x-rays of the teeth and jaws.

Dental Pharmacology: This dental hygienist course covers the study of medication interactions as they apply to dental practice, such as the usage of anti-inflammatories, Novocain, and other anesthetics.

Oral Pathology: Pathology is the study of disease, and oral pathology deals with diseases of the mouth, teeth, and gums, including symptoms and diagnostics.

Cellular Histology: The cellular anatomy of living organisms is the focus of this life science course. Most dental hygiene programs require a higher-level foundation course.

Medical Etimonology: The words and etymology of medical practice are covered in this fundamental medical preparatory course.

Oral Microbiology: The study of cellular creatures such as bacteria is known as microbiology. Oral microbiology is a topic covered in dental hygiene classes that focuses on the germs found in the mouth.

Psychology: The study of the human mind and its activities is the focus of this foundation-level course. In dental hygiene schools, the concentration of courses within a broad subject might vary significantly.

Public Health Dentistry: This advanced dental hygiene course focuses on dental health in the context of a population rather than an individual. Dental hygienists who study this field work with fluoridation of drinking water, public access to dental treatments, and other population-related challenges.

Depending on the amount of education desired, a dental hygienist training program may include a variety of other courses. Inquire with enrollment staff about the individual dental hygienist courses available in their programs.

dental hygienist education

Dental Hygienist Job Description

In practice, a dental hygienist performs many of the same responsibilities as a dentist, such as removing plaque and tartar from patients’ teeth, cleaning teeth with dental instruments, applying sealants and fluoride rinses to protect patients’ teeth, and advising patients on appropriate dental hygiene.

In many dental offices, the dental hygienist does the majority of the work, with the dentist merely doing a quick check.

What Does a Dental Hygienist Do ?

Part-time schedules are typical for dental hygienists. They may be required to work late nights, early mornings, afternoons, weekends, or a combination of these times. The hours you work will be determined by the nature of your job. A dentist’s office may have multiple dental hygienists, and dental hygienists may work for multiple dentists.

The job description for a dental hygienist comprises a wide range of duties. Hard and soft deposits, including tartar, plague, and stains, are removed from patients’ teeth by dental hygienists. Examining patients’ teeth and gums for any abnormalities, recording and reporting these results to the dentist for further examination is also part of the dental hygienist’s work description.

The dental hygienist job description may also include job duties like:

  • Administering anesthetics to patients
  • Prepare fillings
  • Applying cavity-prevention treatments
  • Preparing laboratory diagnostic tests
  • Smoothing and polishing dental restorations.
  • Taking x-rays of teeth

Dental Hygienist Job Requirements

Dental hygienists need a solid foundation in dental anatomy, dental practice, and oral hygiene. Because a dental hygienist may perform the majority of the work on a patient, they must stay up to date on the latest best practices and be well-versed in the science and medical understanding of dental hygiene.

In addition to hand and rotary instruments, ultrasonic equipment, and x-ray machines, dental hygienists use a range of other tools. As a result, they must have excellent hand dexterity in order to use these devices effectively. Most training schools provide dental hygienist courses that teach the background knowledge and hands-on skills required to fulfill this job description.

Dental Hygienist Work Environment

Dental hygienists operate in well-lit, clean environments where they must stand and sit for long periods of time. Furthermore, dental hygienists must adhere to a number of health and safety standards. To prevent the transmission of germs, they must wear protective clothes such as gloves, surgical masks, and safety glasses.

Dental hygienists frequently work with dentists and dental assistants in dental offices or group practices.

Over the next ten years, the number of dental hygienists is expected to increase rapidly. Not only is the older population growing, but so is the number of people seeking expert dental care for their teeth.

You can expect to make a good dental hygienist income even during your first years of work, in addition to more job prospects. Dental hygienists earn an average of $68,000 a year in the United States. Certification improves the job possibilities for dental hygienists.

People are reading: 7 Scholarships in France for International Students
10 Best Scholarships in the United States for International Students
Fully Funded Scholarships for International Undergraduate Students
Chatham University Scholarships for Undergraduate and Graduate Students
10 San Diego University Scholarships for all Students

Introduction, Branches and Fundamentals Of Science And Physics

/

Philosophy of Physical Science

Science
Introduction, Branches and Fundamentals Of Science And Physics 22

Science is a methodical process of accumulating and organizing information in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the world.

Science is an information framework that connects living things and their surroundings.

Science has been linked to philosophy since classical antiquity as a sort of knowledge. The terms “science” and “philosophy” were frequently interchanged in the English language during the early modern era.

In modern usage, science is frequently equated with ‘natural and physical science,’ and thus limited to disciplines of study concerned with the phenomena of the material universe and their rules, with the implied exclusion of pure mathematics. This is now the most commonly used sense. ” Based on early examples such as Kepler’s laws, Galileo’s laws, and Newton’s laws of motion, this narrower notion of “science” arose as a separate activity of identifying “laws of nature.” Natural philosophy began to be referred to as “natural science” during this time period. Throughout the nineteenth century, the term “science” came to be associated with the methodical study of the natural world, such as physics, chemistry, geology, and biology.

This created a linguistic limbo in the study of the human mind and society, which was rectified by designating these areas of academic research as social science. Similarly, several other significant disciplines of disciplined study and knowledge, such as formal science and applied science, exist today under the overall umbrella of “science.”

Natural sciences, which examine natural phenomena (including biological life), and social sciences, which explore human behavior and societies, are the two main groupings of scientific fields.

These classifications are empirical sciences, which means that the knowledge must be founded on observable phenomena and able to be tested for validity by other researchers working in similar situations. Engineering and medicine, for example, are linked subjects that are classified as transdisciplinary and applied sciences.

Specialized scientific fields, which may include elements of other scientific disciplines but frequently have their own language and expertise, are included within these categories.

The formal science of mathematics has both similarities and differences with the empirical sciences (the natural and social sciences). It is comparable to empirical sciences in that it entails an objective, meticulous, and methodical investigation of a field of knowledge; yet, it differs in that it relies on a priori rather than empirical methods to verify its findings. The empirical sciences require the formal sciences, which comprise statistics and logic. The empirical sciences have frequently benefited from substantial developments in formal science.

Both discovering and describing how things work (natural sciences) and how people think and act (social sciences), formal sciences are crucial in the formulation of hypotheses, theories, and rules (social sciences).

  • Physics is the science that studies matter and energy, as well as their interactions. Gravity, light, and time are all topics studied by physicists. The Theory of Relativity was invented by Albert Einstein, a famous physicist.
  • Chemistry is the study of the structure, composition, and characteristics of matter. Pasteurization, for example, is the process of heating liquids like milk and orange juice to kill harmful bacteria. It was invented by the chemist Louis Pasteur.
  • Astronomy is the study of the universe beyond the atmosphere of the Earth.
  • Geology is the study of the Earth’s origins, history, and structure, as well as the physical, chemical, and biological changes it has gone through or is going through.
  • Exploration and study of the ocean is referred to as oceanography.
  • Paleontology is the study of living forms that existed in prehistoric or geologic times.
  • Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere and its phenomena, such as weather and climate.
  • Botany is the scientific study of plants.
  • Zoology is the branch of biology that deals with animals and their behavior.
  • Genetics is the science of inheritance.
  • Medicine is the science of detecting, treating, and preventing disease, injury, and illness.

Here is a list of the major branches of physics, along with a brief description of what each branch studies. Each discipline of physics is further subdivided into sub-branches.

Except for mathematical physics, each of these fields has an experimental and theoretical sub-discipline, as previously stated. These branches of physics are artificially classified, and they overlap to form new specialized fields.

This is the oldest field of physics, and it represents the motion of all macroscopic objects analytically. It explains everything from why huge things such as balls bounce to why pendulums swing to why planets orbit the Sun! Because it cannot explain motion at the atomic level, it describes’mechanics’ of all kinds on a vast scale and in its classical form. Fluid mechanics is a sub-discipline of classical mechanics that deals with the physics of all sorts of fluids.

 

science

Physics based on mathematics

This is the discipline of physics that provides analytical tools for theoretical physics. Because mathematics is the language of nature, it is necessary to understand mathematics in order to comprehend nature. Physics benefits from mathematics’ precision. It is a discipline of pure mathematics and physics that combines the two. A physicist’s toolkit includes mathematical physics tools. A physicist must use the appropriate mathematical tools to solve a problem, just as a worker must use the appropriate equipment to complete his job. Every new law uncovered as we delve further into nature can only be described in a new form of mathematics.

Electrodynamics in the Classical Sense

This branch of physics is the most widely used of all. Classical electrodynamics is based on Maxwell’s principles of electromagnetism, which describe electromagnetic processes at all sizes from the atomic to the global. It is the theoretical foundation of optics, telecommunications, and a variety of other industries. Because the ‘Electromagnetic Force’ is all-pervasive and we live in an electromagnetic environment, its dominion includes all of nature.

This branch explains a new type of mechanics that can explain phenomena at the subatomic level that classical mechanics can’t. At the subatomic sizes, it provides the clearest image of nature. Quantum physics is based on the uncertainty principle and predicts all occurrences using probability. It describes a strange subatomic universe that differs dramatically from the macroscopic world. Quantum physics is the theoretical foundation of all fields of physics that describe occurrences on atomic or subatomic scales, and it necessitates a significant amount of mathematical knowledge. ‘Basics of Quantum Mechanics for Dummies‘ is a good resource for more information on this.

Science
Introduction, Branches and Fundamentals Of Science And Physics 23

Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics

One of the basic fields of physics is thermodynamics and statistical physics, which provides a theoretical method to describe the motion and phenomena of multi-particle systems. Quantum mechanics can examine the motion of a single particle, but it cannot describe multi-particle systems analytically because the variables of computation are too numerous. As a result, a statistical technique that describes bulk matter motion is required. Statistical mechanics has its origins in thermodynamics. Quantum statistical mechanics is the result of combining statistical and quantum mechanics.

Physics of Condensed Matter

Condensed Matter Physics is a sub-discipline of quantum physics and statistical mechanics that studies all events that occur in condensed matter. This encompasses all liquids, solids, and gases. The physics of semiconductor devices, which enable today’s age of information technology, is the result of condensed matter physics study. It encompasses all bulk matter properties such as ferromagnetism, superfluidity, and superconductivity.

All processes occurring at the level of the atomic nucleus are described by nuclear physics. Radioactivity, nuclear fission, and nuclear fusion are all discussed and explained in this book. Nuclear physics advancements led to the development of nuclear weapons such as the atom bomb and the hydrogen bomb, as well as the availability of nuclear energy.

Theory of Quantum Fields

This is the physics which deals with the physics of extremely small and rapid particles. Particle physics is another name for it. It is based on the three theoretical foundations of quantum mechanics: special theory of relativity, the concept of fields, and quantum mechanics itself. It describes the physics of fundamental particles of matter and is based on the unification of all three foundations. It’s one of the most challenging fields of physics because it deals with nature’s ultimate building blocks.

This is a branch of classical mechanics that deals with difficulties on macroscopic scales that classical mechanics cannot address. It is a discipline of mathematics that aims to solve non-linear differential equations of motion that aren’t accessible to conventional methods of solution. A large portion of it is also known as ‘Chaos Theory,’ which explores the organized chaos that exists in the macroscopic universe. It is currently the most exciting branch of physics.

Astrophysics and astronomy

Astronomy is the observable study of the cosmos in all of its forms, while astrophysics (a confluence of all areas of physics) is the theoretical foundation that can explain all of these occurrences. It is the most comprehensive of all physics branches, with the single purpose of understanding every thing that occurs in the cosmos.

Cosmology and General Relativity

The proper theory, which describes gravitation on all scales, is the general theory of relativity. Gravity is interpreted as a result of space-time curvature, rather than as a force. Massive objects distort and bend space around them. The bending of space time causes gravity. General relativity interacts with matter by unifying space and time into ‘Spacetime.’ The amount of space that bends is determined by the amount of matter and energy present. ‘Matter tells space how to bend, space tells matter how to move!’ is how general relativity is defined in simple terms. ‘Does the Fourth(4th) Dimension of Time Exist?’ is a good place to start.

The theory of general relativity is so powerful that it gave birth to a new discipline called cosmology, which provides a framework for describing the entire evolution of the Universe! Physics can now answer the question, “How was the Universe Created?” for the first time, owing to cosmology. This was a crash course in all of physics’ major disciplines.

There are many more specialized branches of physics, such as ‘Biophysics,’ which describes the physics involved in living systems (a confluence of biology and physics).

Science
Introduction, Branches and Fundamentals Of Science And Physics 24

Music Education Degree | Job Opportunities and Education Requirements

/

What is a Music Education Degree? How do I get a music education degree?

One can consider music education to be the transmission of information about musical expression. A contemporary academic setting, such as a school, or a platform that allows peer-to-peer learning, such as internet-based learning, could be used to achieve this goal. In this general category of study, there are several options, the most prominent of which are the Master of Music with a focus on education and the Master of Education in Music. Most programs include courses in pedagogy, principles of music education, music literacy, and research.

Scholars enrolled in music education degree programs are often able to maintain a personal musical practice, strengthening their expressive and technical abilities. Additionally, one could gain an increased network of collaborators to advance their art, including peers and instructors. Teaching skills may be useful when sharing music with friends and students alike.

Tuition for each program should be checked individually. Prices could be determined by a number of factors, such as the country in which the school is located. These factors include the facilities, such as laboratories, to which students have access.

A graduate with a Master’s in Music Education Degree might find employment in a music education center. Administrative positions may include duties such as community outreach, program planning, and facility management. Another common entry-level position for music teachers is tutoring. Several options are available, including attending an established school or advertising as a freelancer. Graduates with professional experience or significant achievements may find jobs teaching music theory, performance, or education at colleges and universities.

There are many options for music education degrees available both online and in the classroom.

music education

Why music education is so significant

Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) lists music as one of 18 distinct subjects that are considered to be part of a well-rounded education. Music education offers specific benefits that extend beyond improving learners’ musical abilities.

The National Association for Music Education has identified 20 benefits of music education. Here are just a few of them:

  • Enhancing language and reasoning abilities
  • Making memorization easier
  • Developing creative thinking
  • Developing imagination and intellectual curiosity
  • Developing self-confidence and emotional maturity

Music education has also been linked to a variety of desirable outcomes. Better SAT scores, fewer dropouts, better emotional health, higher GPAs, and greater financial achievement in adulthood are examples.

Earning a Music Education Degree

Typically, to teach music in a public school, you need a bachelor’s degree in music education (or a music degree with an accompanying teacher preparation program). Depending on the state you plan to work in, you’ll also need a license. A master’s degree will be required if you are interested in teaching at the college level or being a music director.

Bachelor of Music Education Degree

Depending on the school, bachelor’s programs differ somewhat. There are some schools that offer concentrations in areas such as instrumental, choral, and general education that may require dual majors in music and music education. Be sure you understand what the music program requires and that it fits with your career goals while you are exploring institutions.

Bachelor of Music Education Degree Requirements :

The fundamentals of music education are as follows: These bachelor’s degree programs are comparable to others. Typical examples are:

  • High school diploma or equivalent (you may be required to provide transcripts)
  • A minimum grade point average (GPA)—usually 2.5 but sometimes 3.0—is required.
  • ACT and SAT score ranges are specified.
  • A personal statement or essay about why you want to be a teacher.
  • Letters of recommendation

Many music education programs, however, require a live audition to demonstrate your musical abilities. An audition could include any or all of the following:

  • Performance on your principal instrument.
  • Sightsinging
  • Sightreading
  • Piano performance
  • An interview about your interest in teaching music

Curriculum For A Bachelor’s In Music Education Degree

Because music teachers must be proficient in a wide range of instruments and voice methods, teacher preparation programs expose their students to a wide range of musical instruments and skills, not just their own specializations.

Some schools offer specialization sections or tracks, mainly in instrumental, choral, or general education. For all programs, you must be a proficient pianist. Some combine a music major (with a focus on your individual instruments) with a music education major (in which you learn all aspects of teaching music).

General classes for all types of music ed majors might include:

  • Introduction to Music Appreciation: This course introduces you to the philosophy, history, and current trends of teaching music appreciation to students of all ages.
  • Teaching Music to Diverse Cultural Populations: As a music educator, you need to understand and respect the diverse multicultural backgrounds of your students. Diverse musical experiences should be a formal aspect of your classroom’s curriculum, with artists from different places and time periods introduced into the classroom for study, appreciation, and discussion.
  • The Human Experience in Music: The artistic experience of music is essential to the understanding of the humanities through creating, listening, and movement. Aspiring teachers will analyze music as related to the elements of harmony, timbre, dynamics, form, and melody. Conducting, score reading, rehearsal techniques, and music theory may also be taught in this class.
  • Curriculum and Design in Music Instruction: As a teacher, you will most likely be responsible for developing a creative and stimulating curriculum.
  • As your curriculum progresses to completion, which should take about four years, you will typically be required to complete a teaching practicum that provides you with the experience of teaching music in an actual classroom. You can usually choose the grade level you want to teach and, to some extent, the focus of the curriculum.

Music Education Master’s Degree

The decision to pursue a profession in music instruction makes a lot of sense. In practice, earnings for music instructors often rise with the completion of a master’s degree. Furthermore, graduate material is more complicated and generally more intellectually interesting than undergraduate education. Finally, the students you will encounter in graduate school, whether in person or online, will challenge you to improve both your skills and methods, and they may become life-long friends and collaborators.

Most programs take roughly two years to finish.

Entrance Requirements

While the prerequisites for a master’s degree in music education vary by school, most programs need the following:

  • A bachelor’s degree in music or music education
  • Letters of recommendation
  • Teaching experience (not necessarily required, but often encouraged)
  • Statement of purpose
  • Teaching or performance video

Curriculum For A Master’s In Music Education Degree

Below is a sampling of courses you might take as a graduate student in a master’s level in music program:

  • Power, Marginalization, and Privilege in Music Education: This social justice–oriented course aims to create reflective students who can recognize the ways in which music is impacted by bias and privilege on a personal and societal scale. Upon completion of the course, students will be informed practitioners who are able to advocate for change that benefits the industry and their students alike.
  • Community Music Perspectives: Students in this course will explore the growth and development of community music through project-based work that culminates in the ability to develop a personal vision for community music.
  • American Music: This course will immerse students in the various influences that impacted music in the colonies. A wide range of music styles will be studied, including African-American, Spanish-Mexican, Indian, and European.

music education

Online Music Education Degree

If you already have a bachelor’s degree and are a certified music educator, you can continue working while earning a graduate degree from an online university. Bachelor’s degrees in music education are normally not available online, but numerous colleges provide master’s degrees online, and a few schools offer doctoral degrees.

The format of online programs varies slightly amongst schools, but the majority of online music education programs include a capstone project and/or internship after all other modules are satisfactorily completed. The length of time it takes to complete an online degree is mostly determined by a student’s work ethic and schedule. Master’s and doctorate degrees can be completed in as little as 18 months or as long as two and a half years. Classes span themes such as music psychology and sociology, music history, music education philosophy, music technology, advanced conducting, music theory, and pedagogy.

Online degree programs are appropriate for music educators with prior experience who are self-motivated and disciplined. Those who learn best in an organized and disciplined atmosphere may benefit from taking on-campus classes.

Music Education Degree Certification and licensing

All 50 states require music teachers who work in public schools to be licensed. Exact criteria vary by state, but most need a bachelor’s degree in education, a student teaching internship, and a passing score on a comprehensive exam like the Praxis. For more precise information, contact the education department of the state in which you intend to teach.

Experienced music educators may also seek certification from the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. A C-certification is a voluntary certificate that recognizes a higher degree of professional expertise and achievement and can lead to a pay raise.

Music Education Degree Salary in Some States

The median compensation for all music teachers in October 2019 was $52,827, according to ZipRecruiter. The top 10% of music professors made $95,500 per year.

ZipRecruiter also reported that in October 2019, average salaries were highest in these states:

New York: $57,809.

Massachusetts: $57,399

New Hampshire: $56,406.

Maryland: $54,272

Nebraska: $53,287

Music teachers will have moderate employment possibilities over the next ten years, according to CareerExplorer, with 18,500 job postings. 14,700 of those job opportunities will be for extra music teachers, while 3,800 will be to replace retiring music teachers.

music education

Music Education Degree Jobs

Your music education is a significant investment that you anticipate to pay off by giving you with many more options than you would have had you not pursued it. In today’s workplace, it’s critical that you not only comprehend what you’ll learn in your chosen music degree program, but also how that information will help you land your ideal career. This knowledge is especially necessary if you plan to study music; in this famously competitive field, having a competitive advantage is essential. Thankfully, the industry’s breadth is much broader than you may think. The following are a handful of the most promising job options for music graduates:

1. Performing Artist

For many music students, nothing compares to the exhilaration of performing in front of a live audience. This is an important part of becoming a professional musician, but there’s a lot more to this dream job than screamers. Musicians also devote a significant amount of time to improving their craft, perfecting recordings in studios, and collaborating with agencies. It’s not an easy road, but many people find it extremely rewarding. A music degree not only provides technical training, but it also helps prospective singers and instrumentalists get a better sense of the industry’s demands. Additionally, performing artists develop a strong professional network from which they might seek assistance.

2. Composer and Song Writer

If you’re always coming up with fresh song or album ideas, you might be best suited for a profession in composition or songwriting. A wide range of genres and artists might be involved in this endeavor. Despite the fact that many composers are talented performers, many prefer to remain in the background. Others value the path’s inherent versatility, as it allows them to work with a wide range of brilliant artists to realize their vision.

While visions of Beethoven or Mozart frantically scribbling away may come to mind when thinking about composers, the endeavor is becoming increasingly computerized. Today’s composers and song writers use modern notation and engraving software to create their works. A musical background gives those who want to incorporate technological tools into their job an advantage as technology evolves.

3. Music Teacher

“What do you plan to do with your degree—teach?” doubters may ask music students when they meet them. While not all music degrees end up in the classroom or in a private studio, some aim to instill a love of music in future generations above all else.

Music education is a field that is surprisingly diverse. Teachers may work one-on-one with students or with large groups of students. To succeed in education, instructors must possess a unique blend of skills, including musical ability, empathy, and the ability to command respect.

4. Music programmer

Consumers today use digital platforms to discover and follow musicians, from Spotify to SiriusXM. Music programmers combine technical expertise with industry knowledge to create high-quality stations and playlists for listeners across several platforms. Programmers may also be in charge of cultivating strong relationships with key industry figures in order to ensure that the platforms they represent provide high-quality podcasts, videos, and other material.

Although the music profession is competitive, a great education can pay off handsomely as you seek your ideal job. Your education will expose you to a wide range of opportunities, allowing you to establish a name for yourself while doing what you enjoy.

5. Production Manager

A good concert necessitates a great deal of planning and coordination. In this process, production managers play a crucial role. Production managers are in charge of booking performers, coordinating sound and lighting teams, maintaining vendor records, and supervising budgeting considerations, depending on the type of venue. Production managers may also be in charge of leasing agreements, labor agreements, and insurance plans.

6. Sound Engineer

Music production involves a lot more than most people realize. A quality record requires more than a talented vocalist or instrumentalist; audio engineers labor tirelessly to guarantee that the performers’ abilities are appropriately reflected in the end product.

Audio engineers are commonly linked with recording studios, but they can perform a wide range of tasks. Many audio engineers work in concert halls or theaters. Others may provide excellent sound at sporting events or business functions. Large teams of sound engineers are frequently used during events, with each person addressing a distinct issue. Systems engineers, monitor sound engineers, and wireless microphone engineers, for example, may be part of the audio team for a huge concert.

7. Talent Agent

While social media has made it possible for a range of musicians who might not otherwise have had a chance to make it big, talent agencies are still necessary for most artists’ success. Music agents are best known for booking appearances on behalf of their clients, but their work goes well beyond that. Agents assist musicians in obtaining media appearances, interviews, and even tour sponsorships, in addition to dealing with venues. Agents’ careful coordination can help artists avoid overextending themselves by preventing them from going too far between appearances.

8. Record Producer

While record producers and audio engineers have many of the same responsibilities, the breadth of their work can vary greatly. Sound engineers usually concentrate on technical aspects like equalization. Producers can deal with these technological issues, but they also have a lot of aesthetic leeway. Some record producers, for example, actively participate in songwriting, while others may make considerable alterations to existing material in order to create a cohesive single or album.

In addition to directing and altering tracks, many producers are in charge of administrative tasks like personnel and budgeting. Producers must show not only tremendous technical and aesthetic expertise, but also a broad awareness of the music industry and what it takes for a performer to succeed in a notoriously competitive field in order to succeed.

9. Jingle Writer/Commercial Composer

Commercial composers, also known as “jingle writers,” create music primarily for marketing purposes. Commercial composers must think about not only how to write a catchy tune, but also whether or not it will appeal to a broad audience. They are also in charge of encapsulating a company’s brand or mission in a few notes.

CLICK HERE TO APPLY FOR : Musician Institute Scholarships , Musician Institute Online Scholarships, & Musician Foundation Scholarships (For Programs Beginning Spring 2022, Fall 2022 & Winter 2023 )

Masters in Education Degree Program

/

Types of Masters in Education Degree Programs

masters in education
Masters in Education Degree Program 32

Earning a graduate degree in education is a very popular option in America today; it can open up many exciting career doors in many fields. However, there are many types of master’s in education programs from which you can choose.

Which one that is best for you will depend upon what your specific career goals are and where you want to work. Understanding the different master’s degrees that you can earn will help you to better understand which will advance your career goals.

There are four major types of master’s degree in education, with many specialities under those four basic degrees; we will go into detail here on each of them. We also provide examples of online universities that are available.

  • Master of Education (M. Ed.)
  • Master of Arts (M.A. Ed.)
  • Master of Science in Education (M.S. Ed.)
  • Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT)

Each of these degree options will provide you with a great deal of career value. To make the best decision is to research on this website whether the degree program will meet your career objectives. Also, you need to determine if that graduate degree will meet the criteria for whatever local state or organization criteria for you job.

Some of these programs are geared toward people who already have a teacher’s license. You might, for example, be looking for additional professional development and a higher salary by earning a master’s in education. Or, you may be a new teacher earning a degree to get your state certification.

Below are details on these types of master’s in education degrees.

masters in education
Masters in Education Degree Program 33

Master’s in Education

The most type of degree in this area is the Master’s in Education. A major aspect of this type of master’s is that it is often a good degree choice for people who come from many educational and career backgrounds. The M. Ed. degree is somewhat of an applied degree; you can take many of the skills you learn and practice them in many different fields.

The M.Ed. is often a good choice for people who want a good, well-rounded overview of the education field. Whether you are interested in advancing your career as a high school or middle school educator or becoming a corporate trainer, this type of master’s degree can be very beneficial.

This degree is often the first choice for educators who want to get a salary and rank increase. There are many specialties within the Master’s in Education that can get you additional expertise.

Liberty University offers an excellent online Master of Education. This degree will prepare you for many leadership roles in public or private school systems.

The coursework will provide you with very focused training for people who want to obtain a position as a K-12 educator, or for those who want to earn a doctorate in education later.

There are several core courses in this program, and then several specializations that will offer you the skills you need in administration, teaching/learning or school counseling.

This program has state approved advanced licensure, which means that most other states will recognize this program as qualifying for licensure for that state. It also is accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education or NCATE.

Specific degrees offered at this university are:

  • Master of Education in Teaching and Supervision
  • Master of Education with Math Specialist Endorsement
  • Master of Education with Reading Specialist Endorsement
  • Master of Education – School Counselor

 

Master of Arts in Education

A Master of Arts in Education is often a good choice for those who want a degree that is tailored to specific subjects. It could be the best choice if you want to improve your skills and knowledge in a specific field or subject.

For example, if you have been teaching Spanish for five years, you may want to earn your M.A. Ed so you can get a Spanish education certification that will lead you to advancement or a higher salary.

A good Master of Arts in Education to consider is the online program at Michigan State University. This program has been designed for educators who would like to enhance their skills and knowledge in teaching, learning, and leadership in elementary, middle and high schools, as well as community colleges and universities.

Students can choose to develop one or two specialities that include these:

  • Master of Arts in Education – Special Education
  • Master of Arts in Education – Sport Coaching and Leadership
  • Master of Arts in Education – Technology and Learning
  • Master of Arts in Education – P-12 School and Postsecondary Leadership
  • Master of Arts in Education – Literacy Education
  • Master of Arts in Education – Science and Mathematics

Each degree program requires you to complete ED 800 Educational Inquiry, and you also need to complete ED 870 Capstone and Synthesis. This includes completing and showing an online portfolio. You must complete 80% of the program before you start the capstone.

masters in education
Masters in Education Degree Program 34

Master of Science in Education

A Master of Science in Education often will focus on curriculum methodology and design, instructional design, pedagogy and related subjects. Many universities may offer a very theoretical master’s in science that is heavy on research.

For example, many universities offer a M.S. Ed. for educators who want to become an administrator or principal. The specialization in that case would be administration or educational leadership in administration.

The University of New England offers a Master of Science in Education that is completely online with many focus areas for education professionals who want to further their careers. There are five core classes you take online, and then you can choose five other electives in the specialty you prefer.

The features of all Master of Science in Education programs at UNE:

  • 30 credit hours
  • Complete degree in two years full time
  • No campus visits – 100% online
  • No GRE scores needed
  • Experienced practitioners and instructors
  • Accredited by the New England Association of Schools and Colleges

Core classes are in teaching and leading; differentiation theory and strategies; motivational theory; action research and online portfolio.

Focus areas depending upon your career goals are:

  • Career and Technical Education
  • Curriculum and Instruction
  • Literacy
  • Educational Leadership
  • Inclusion Education – Special Education

Master of Arts in Teaching

The M.A. in Teaching is designed for the student who needs to obtain the expert skills needed for teaching and teaching strategies. This is a frequent option for people that have not gotten their teacher’s certification yet. This degree option can be the perfect choice for people who have a background in another field and are making a switch into teaching.

The MA in Teaching is a hands on degree in many cases, and classroom work is often required under the supervision of a licensed teacher.

Educators with experience in elementary and middle schools may choose to get this master’s degree to learn new skills in applying curriculum and advanced teaching instruction.

If you want to attend a top ranked and prestigious Master in Arts in Education Program, we would recommend the University of Southern California’s Rossier School of Education.

MAT students here will blend education theory with hands on teaching experiences in your local area. This will allow new education students to build strong classroom skills to meet the many challenges of schools that have great needs.

You can choose from five specialties that allow you to earn a special credential that will improve your skills and potentially your salary. You can choose an MA in Teaching with or without a teaching credential. Both programs take up to three years to finish.

  • Elementary Education
  • Secondary English
  • Secondary Mathematics
  • Secondary Science
  • Secondary Social Science
masters in education
Masters in Education Degree Program 35

Europe’s Top 10 Best and Most Affordable Economics Universities

//

Are you looking for an economics universities in Europe? Do you want to expand your horizons in the European world? Are you confident that you are qualified to study in Europe? If that’s the case, these are Europe’s top ten economics universities. The QS World University Rankings were used to compile the list.

Economics Universities
Europe's Top 10 Best and Most Affordable Economics Universities 39

Ranking Top 10 Economics Universities in Europe

 

1. The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) is a university in London, England (United Kingdom)
LSE is a world-class center for the teaching and research of social sciences, including economics, politics, law, sociology, anthropology, accounting, and finance. It was founded in 1895 and is located in central London. The University is known around the world for its excellence in economics education. The university has the largest proportion of world-leading research of any university in the United Kingdom.

There have been 16 Nobel Prize winners in the fields of economics, literature, and peace, all of them were either LSE staff or alumni. LSE Economics focuses on microeconomics, macroeconomics, and econometrics, all of which are important foundations for studying economics.

2. University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
The University of Cambridge, in the United Kingdom, was founded in 1209 and is the English-speaking world’s second-oldest university. Students can select from a variety of degrees. Each degree has its own set of requirements and methods of instruction. Students with a bachelor’s degree in economics from Cambridge can work in a variety of fields, including finance, management consulting, and public policy.

It’s also a great way to be ready for post-graduate studies. The course covers both theoretical and practical economics. Students studying economics, on the other hand, use concepts and techniques from a wide range of disciplines, including history, sociology, mathematics and statistics. As a result, graduates of this university are incredibly well qualified for a variety of occupations and further education.

3. Oxford University (United Kingdom)
University of Oxford is one of the oldest and best universities in the world for higher education. It is located in one of the most famous cities in the world. Oxford’s Department of Economics is one of Europe’s top research departments, with some of the world’s most illustrious academic economists among its ranks. The fundamental aim of economics at the University of Oxford is to understand how consumers, businesses, and governments make decisions that influence how resources are allocated.

Furthermore, the department is dedicated to excellence in undergraduate teaching in order to provide students with the necessary expertise by the time they graduate. This university may appeal to those interested in pursuing an economics degree in the United Kingdom.

4. University of London (UCL) (United Kingdom)
The University of College London, formerly known as London University, was the first university in London to admit students regardless of religion and to admit women on an equal footing with men. It was founded in 1826 as London University.

The University of College London’s Economics department has a strong international reputation in major areas of economics teaching. In the 2014 REF, it was the only economics department in the UK to obtain an exceptional grade-point average of 3.78 (out of 4) with 79 percent of all output metrics graded at the highest 4* level. Students do not have to be concerned about their religion, sex, political beliefs, or anything else affecting their acceptance to this university.

5. Luigi Bocconi Universita Commerciale (Italy)
Bocconi University, or Universita Commerciale Luigi Bocconi in English, is a private university in Milan, Italy. In the departments of economics, management, finance, law, and public administration, Bocconi offers undergraduate, graduate, and post-graduate study. According to the 2013 Financial Times European Business School Rankings, the university is among the top ten best business schools in Europe.

In the 2018 QS World University Rankings, it is also in the top 25 best institutions in the world in the fields of Economics, Econometrics, Accounting, and Finance. In the 2014 QS ‘Social Sciences and Management’ Faculty Rankings, it was placed 25th in the world. Both English and Italian degrees are available. As a result, the University offers a variety of programs and unique occasions for people to broaden their horizons.

Economics Universities
Europe's Top 10 Best and Most Affordable Economics Universities 40

6. The University of Warwick (United Kingdom)
The Institution of Warwick, based in Coventry, England, is a public research university. It was established in 1965 as part of a government drive to increase higher education accessibility. The University of Warwick’s department of economics was established in 1965, the same year as the university, and has since established itself as one of the best economics departments in the UK and Europe.

This university currently has over 1200 undergraduate students and 330 postgraduate students, with half of them from the United Kingdom or the European Union and the other half from other countries. If you choose to study at this one of the greatest colleges, you could be one of the 50% who come from abroad.

7. University of London Business School (United Kingdom)
The University of London’s London Business School (LBS) is a business school and a constituent college of the University of London. It is located in central London, England. After the Franks Report suggested the construction of two business schools, it was founded in 1964. LBS provides a variety of academic disciplines, including economics.

The economics group at LBS excels at academic research and applying it to commercial and government concerns. Economic theory, industrial economics, strategic corporate conduct, the global macro-economy, and European economic integration are among the topics they teach. I recommend that anyone interested in studying economics in London consider this institution as one of their options.

8. The Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden)
The Stockholm School of Economics is one of Europe’s major business schools, located in Sweden. SSS is a for-profit business school that obtains 78 percent of its funding from individuals and 22 percent from the Swedish government. This university provides bachelor’s, master’s, and MBA programs. SSE has been preparing exceptional women and men for leadership roles in the business and economics community, as well as the public sector, for more than a century.

SSE has a well-deserved reputation for quality in Sweden and around the world. SSE is ranked 26th among universities worldwide in the discipline of economics by QS Worldwide University Rankings. EQUIS (European Quality Improvement System) has granted the School accreditation, indicating that all of its primary operations, including teaching and research, meet the highest international standards.

9. Erasmus University Rotterdam (Netherlands)
Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR) is a well-known public university in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, which also happens to be home to Europe’s largest port. The name of the university was inspired by Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus, a 15th-century humanist and theologian, was the inspiration for the university’s name. Erasmus has a long and illustrious academic career behind him. Erasmus University’s Erasmus School of Economics and Rotterdam School of Management are Europe’s and the world’s top economics and management schools. The Financial Times named Erasmus University Rotterdam as one of Europe’s top ten business schools in 2007.

Times Higher Education ranked Erasmus University Rotterdam as 20th in Europe and 72nd worldwide in 2015, with social sciences ranked 40th and clinical and health sciences ranked 35th. This is the first thing that students considering studying in the Netherlands should think about.

Economics Universities
Europe's Top 10 Best and Most Affordable Economics Universities 41

10. Universitat Pompeu Fabra (Spain)
Pompeu Fabra University is a university located in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. It was founded in 1990. Pompeu Fabra, a Catalan philologist, was the inspiration for this name. It is one of the top seven fastest-growing colleges in the world, according to Times Higher Education.

The Graduate Program in Economics, Finance, and Management is offered by the Department of Economics and Business of the Universitat Pompeu Fabra (GPEFM). Students with an exceptional academic background, as well as the intellectual curiosity and discipline required to flourish in a rigorous environment, are sought after by the Program. The Program’s official language is English, which is unique.

 

 

 

economics universitieseconomics universitieseconomics universitieseconomics universitieseconomics universities economics universitieseconomics universitieseconomics universitieseconomics universitieseconomics universitieseconomics universitieseconomics universitieseconomics universities

Introduction, Branches and Fundamentals Of Science And Physics

/

Philosophy of Physical Science

Science
Introduction, Branches and Fundamentals Of Science And Physics 46

Science is a methodical process of accumulating and organizing information in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the world.

Science is an information framework that connects living things and their surroundings.

Science has been linked to philosophy since classical antiquity as a sort of knowledge. The terms “science” and “philosophy” were frequently interchanged in the English language during the early modern era.

In modern usage, science is frequently equated with ‘natural and physical science,’ and thus limited to disciplines of study concerned with the phenomena of the material universe and their rules, with the implied exclusion of pure mathematics. This is now the most commonly used sense. ” Based on early examples such as Kepler’s laws, Galileo’s laws, and Newton’s laws of motion, this narrower notion of “science” arose as a separate activity of identifying “laws of nature.” Natural philosophy began to be referred to as “natural science” during this time period. Throughout the nineteenth century, the term “science” came to be associated with the methodical study of the natural world, such as physics, chemistry, geology, and biology.

This created a linguistic limbo in the study of the human mind and society, which was rectified by designating these areas of academic research as social science. Similarly, several other significant disciplines of disciplined study and knowledge, such as formal science and applied science, exist today under the overall umbrella of “science.”

Natural sciences, which examine natural phenomena (including biological life), and social sciences, which explore human behavior and societies, are the two main groupings of scientific fields.

These classifications are empirical sciences, which means that the knowledge must be founded on observable phenomena and able to be tested for validity by other researchers working in similar situations. Engineering and medicine, for example, are linked subjects that are classified as transdisciplinary and applied sciences.

Specialized scientific fields, which may include elements of other scientific disciplines but frequently have their own language and expertise, are included within these categories.

The formal science of mathematics has both similarities and differences with the empirical sciences (the natural and social sciences). It is comparable to empirical sciences in that it entails an objective, meticulous, and methodical investigation of a field of knowledge; yet, it differs in that it relies on a priori rather than empirical methods to verify its findings. The empirical sciences require the formal sciences, which comprise statistics and logic. The empirical sciences have frequently benefited from substantial developments in formal science.

Both discovering and describing how things work (natural sciences) and how people think and act (social sciences), formal sciences are crucial in the formulation of hypotheses, theories, and rules (social sciences).

  • Physics is the science that studies matter and energy, as well as their interactions. Gravity, light, and time are all topics studied by physicists. The Theory of Relativity was invented by Albert Einstein, a famous physicist.
  • Chemistry is the study of the structure, composition, and characteristics of matter. Pasteurization, for example, is the process of heating liquids like milk and orange juice to kill harmful bacteria. It was invented by the chemist Louis Pasteur.
  • Astronomy is the study of the universe beyond the atmosphere of the Earth.
  • Geology is the study of the Earth’s origins, history, and structure, as well as the physical, chemical, and biological changes it has gone through or is going through.
  • Exploration and study of the ocean is referred to as oceanography.
  • Paleontology is the study of living forms that existed in prehistoric or geologic times.
  • Meteorology is the study of the atmosphere and its phenomena, such as weather and climate.
  • Botany is the scientific study of plants.
  • Zoology is the branch of biology that deals with animals and their behavior.
  • Genetics is the science of inheritance.
  • Medicine is the science of detecting, treating, and preventing disease, injury, and illness.

Here is a list of the major branches of physics, along with a brief description of what each branch studies. Each discipline of physics is further subdivided into sub-branches.

Except for mathematical physics, each of these fields has an experimental and theoretical sub-discipline, as previously stated. These branches of physics are artificially classified, and they overlap to form new specialized fields.

This is the oldest field of physics, and it represents the motion of all macroscopic objects analytically. It explains everything from why huge things such as balls bounce to why pendulums swing to why planets orbit the Sun! Because it cannot explain motion at the atomic level, it describes’mechanics’ of all kinds on a vast scale and in its classical form. Fluid mechanics is a sub-discipline of classical mechanics that deals with the physics of all sorts of fluids.

 

science

Physics based on mathematics

This is the discipline of physics that provides analytical tools for theoretical physics. Because mathematics is the language of nature, it is necessary to understand mathematics in order to comprehend nature. Physics benefits from mathematics’ precision. It is a discipline of pure mathematics and physics that combines the two. A physicist’s toolkit includes mathematical physics tools. A physicist must use the appropriate mathematical tools to solve a problem, just as a worker must use the appropriate equipment to complete his job. Every new law uncovered as we delve further into nature can only be described in a new form of mathematics.

Electrodynamics in the Classical Sense

This branch of physics is the most widely used of all. Classical electrodynamics is based on Maxwell’s principles of electromagnetism, which describe electromagnetic processes at all sizes from the atomic to the global. It is the theoretical foundation of optics, telecommunications, and a variety of other industries. Because the ‘Electromagnetic Force’ is all-pervasive and we live in an electromagnetic environment, its dominion includes all of nature.

This branch explains a new type of mechanics that can explain phenomena at the subatomic level that classical mechanics can’t. At the subatomic sizes, it provides the clearest image of nature. Quantum physics is based on the uncertainty principle and predicts all occurrences using probability. It describes a strange subatomic universe that differs dramatically from the macroscopic world. Quantum physics is the theoretical foundation of all fields of physics that describe occurrences on atomic or subatomic scales, and it necessitates a significant amount of mathematical knowledge. ‘Basics of Quantum Mechanics for Dummies‘ is a good resource for more information on this.

Science
Introduction, Branches and Fundamentals Of Science And Physics 47

Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics

One of the basic fields of physics is thermodynamics and statistical physics, which provides a theoretical method to describe the motion and phenomena of multi-particle systems. Quantum mechanics can examine the motion of a single particle, but it cannot describe multi-particle systems analytically because the variables of computation are too numerous. As a result, a statistical technique that describes bulk matter motion is required. Statistical mechanics has its origins in thermodynamics. Quantum statistical mechanics is the result of combining statistical and quantum mechanics.

Physics of Condensed Matter

Condensed Matter Physics is a sub-discipline of quantum physics and statistical mechanics that studies all events that occur in condensed matter. This encompasses all liquids, solids, and gases. The physics of semiconductor devices, which enable today’s age of information technology, is the result of condensed matter physics study. It encompasses all bulk matter properties such as ferromagnetism, superfluidity, and superconductivity.

All processes occurring at the level of the atomic nucleus are described by nuclear physics. Radioactivity, nuclear fission, and nuclear fusion are all discussed and explained in this book. Nuclear physics advancements led to the development of nuclear weapons such as the atom bomb and the hydrogen bomb, as well as the availability of nuclear energy.

Theory of Quantum Fields

This is the physics which deals with the physics of extremely small and rapid particles. Particle physics is another name for it. It is based on the three theoretical foundations of quantum mechanics: special theory of relativity, the concept of fields, and quantum mechanics itself. It describes the physics of fundamental particles of matter and is based on the unification of all three foundations. It’s one of the most challenging fields of physics because it deals with nature’s ultimate building blocks.

This is a branch of classical mechanics that deals with difficulties on macroscopic scales that classical mechanics cannot address. It is a discipline of mathematics that aims to solve non-linear differential equations of motion that aren’t accessible to conventional methods of solution. A large portion of it is also known as ‘Chaos Theory,’ which explores the organized chaos that exists in the macroscopic universe. It is currently the most exciting branch of physics.

Astrophysics and astronomy

Astronomy is the observable study of the cosmos in all of its forms, while astrophysics (a confluence of all areas of physics) is the theoretical foundation that can explain all of these occurrences. It is the most comprehensive of all physics branches, with the single purpose of understanding every thing that occurs in the cosmos.

Cosmology and General Relativity

The proper theory, which describes gravitation on all scales, is the general theory of relativity. Gravity is interpreted as a result of space-time curvature, rather than as a force. Massive objects distort and bend space around them. The bending of space time causes gravity. General relativity interacts with matter by unifying space and time into ‘Spacetime.’ The amount of space that bends is determined by the amount of matter and energy present. ‘Matter tells space how to bend, space tells matter how to move!’ is how general relativity is defined in simple terms. ‘Does the Fourth(4th) Dimension of Time Exist?’ is a good place to start.

The theory of general relativity is so powerful that it gave birth to a new discipline called cosmology, which provides a framework for describing the entire evolution of the Universe! Physics can now answer the question, “How was the Universe Created?” for the first time, owing to cosmology. This was a crash course in all of physics’ major disciplines.

There are many more specialized branches of physics, such as ‘Biophysics,’ which describes the physics involved in living systems (a confluence of biology and physics).

Science
Introduction, Branches and Fundamentals Of Science And Physics 48

Pharmacist Education: Useful Training, Years, And Requirements

Pharmacist
Pharmacist Education: Useful Training, Years, And Requirements 52

The educational requirements for becoming a pharmacist are quite consistent across states. A pharmacist license issued by one state is usually recognized by the rest of the country.

Practically all schools demand nearly identical prerequisites before allowing a student to enroll in a pharmacy program. Before being accepted into a pharmacy school, students must complete a science-related undergraduate program.

Before graduating, a student will spend several years in pharmacy school studying and doing an internship. For pharmacy school graduates, there are a variety of job options. The majority of them work at pharmacies that are open to the general public. Others are hired by pharmaceutical companies, while some graduates work in hospitals.

Students interested in studying pharmacy should be aware that they will be required to complete a significant amount of schoolwork, as outlined below. The vast majority of these are devoted to science, biology, chemistry, and even mathematics. As a result, it’s critical that the student is interested in these topics, as they’re crucial to a pharmacist’s job.

A pharmacist’s job entails more than just counting pills and keeping track of their inventory. Pharmacists should be familiar with the chemicals used in medicine production in order to better understand how they effect the human body and its activities.

Pharmacy is a science-based field, some institutions will only admit candidates who have completed a bachelor’s degree in biology or chemistry.

Requiring students to obtain a degree in a science-related field is vital because it ensures that they have the necessary skills to succeed in a science-based pharmacy program. This will also ensure that the student is truly interested in pursuing a scientific-based degree, as states require prospective pharmacists to take certain science coursework.

Graduate school programs take around two years to finish. During these two years, students are taught how to prepare for the licensing exam that will allow them to become qualified pharmacists. Completing a graduate school program isn’t easy, and it’s certainly not cheap.

However, due of good job options for pharmacists, such as working in businesses and retail pharmacies, the expenditures of education will be extremely well compensated. A rookie pharmacist can expect to make about $80,000 per year on average. This value is comparable to a doctor’s income, which is higher because he or she must spend more time in school.

Completing all of the pharmacy school criteria for pharmacist education is a difficult task. It requires time and determination to learn about science, chemistry, and biology. Despite the challenges, the benefits of studying hard can be realized after graduation, as pharmacy is a lucrative profession. Pharmacists not only earn a nice wage, but they also help people improve their health, which is something money can’t buy. However, before obtaining a license, a student must complete at least 6 to 7 years of education. A pharmacist must also attend training to strengthen his abilities during his career.

Students can begin pharmacy school as early as high school if they so wish. It is preferable to decide on a career route in high school, and once a student has decided, it is best to focus and take advanced coursework in areas such as mathematics and science. Even if a student is already enrolled in college or has completed college, pharmacy school is always an option.

When a student decides to pursue a degree in pharmacy, he or she must first pass the PCAT, or Pharmacy College Admission Test. However, not all of the schools listed on PharmCAS require an entrance test, but all of them require an application letter and a reference letter before the application can be processed.

Furthermore, as stated in pharmacist education requirements, it is critical to complete all required courses before enrolling to a pharmacy school. Those interested in going to pharmacy school after high school can enroll in either an undergraduate or a Pharm.D. program. It is feasible to finish all prerequisites in just two years and then begin the pharmacy program, which will take three to four years to complete.

Students in other relevant courses, on the other hand, must concentrate on science-related topics if they want to attend pharmacy school. When compared to arts-focused courses, these courses provide a solid foundation. If you want to be certain about the prerequisites that your selected school requires, it is best to look at the school’s website. This will not only ensure that you meet all of the standards, but it will also streamline the application process. Keep in mind, however, that some schools have already phased out their pharmacy bachelor’s degree programs. The Pharm.D. has taken its place. Before becoming a pharmacist, a student must complete this degree.

Furthermore, a Pharm.D. is distinct from a doctorate or master’s degree. The latter are graduate-level programs that take four years to finish. These two entail laboratory tasks as well as extensive instruction. Keep in mind, however, that practical training is an important aspect of every pharmacist’s education.

Pharmacist
Pharmacist Education: Useful Training, Years, And Requirements 53

Pharmacy school is demanding; it might be as difficult as medical school. To survive, you’ll need training, real-world experience, and in-depth research. However, a rewarding career awaits those who have completed the hard training. Long years of residency are not required in pharmacy, as they are in medical school, and it is also optional. If a pharmacist

so desires, they can spend as little as one or two years in residency.

Furthermore, while residency is optional, pharmacists can practice without completing it if they already have a license. The National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Licensing Examination, or NABPLEX, is normally in charge of administering licensing exams. It is critical to obtain a license because you will be unable to practice your profession without one.

Being a pharmacist entails more than just working in a pharmacy. It’s a fascinating career with a variety of job options. Pharmacists can opt to work with a medical team and support doctors, or they can work in laboratories and do research. Once you become a pharmacist, you have a wide selection of employment options in front of you.

Pharmacist
Pharmacist Education: Useful Training, Years, And Requirements 54